== Čtrnácté století ==
A fitting prelude to the horrors of the fourteenth century was afforded by the massacre of the Prague community, which, it would appear, had its own quarter, the "Vicus Judæorum," as early as 1273 (Grün, p. 24). In 1290 (Wertheimer, p. 175) and 1298 Rindfleisch's robber-band (Grün, p. 16), fell upon the ghetto there, to avenge an alleged insult to the host. As early in the century as 1305 the charges of ritual murder which sprang upin so many German towns found victims in Prague (Kohut, "Gesch. der Deutsch. Jud." p. 162). In 1321 seventy-five Jews were burned at the stake there ("Jahrb. Gesch. der Jud." iv. 147). John of Luxemburg in 1336 plundered the synagogues because by the newly introduced customs duty he could not quickly attain his end (Grün, p. 17). In the same year 53 Jews were burned in Prague ("Jahrb. Gesch. der Jud." iv. 147). At the instigation of the Armleders and their like the Jews in Budweis (Wertheimer, p. 177), where there were in 134 three families, had increased considerably in numbers; those in Czaslau, Prichowitz, and Neuhaus were plundered and murdered (Salf. p. 240). The archbishop of Prague, Arnest I., in 1347 made new charges against them (Wertheimer, p. 173); but they were shielded by the utterance of the emperor Charles IV. in that year, who said that the Jews were his "serfs" ("Kammerknechte"), and that his rights in them must be respected (M. 1894, p. 371). His representative in 1339 likewise protected certain Jews, who had been baptized and had reverted to Judaism again, from the vengeance of the Church; for his humane interference he was promptly excommunicated (Wertheimer, p. 175). On the other hand, however, Charles IV. felt himself justified in considering all the property of his "serfs" as quite his own, and at his pleasure released debtors to the Jews from their obligations. He divided with his nobles the possessions of the Jews massacred in the fearful outbreaks of 1348 and 1349 which accompanied the Black Death in Prague and Eger (ib. p. 174; Salf. pp. 250, 268; Kohut, ib.; concerning the Jews in Eger, see Wertheimer, p. 176; for those in Kolin: M. 1894, p. 220). All these bloody scenes of the century were brought to a fitting close with the repeated massacres excited in 1388 by the charge of ritual murder (Wertheimer, p. 74); in 1389, by the charge of insulting the host (Salf. p. 306; Zunz, "Ritus," p. 127), during which latter outbreak even the grave-stones in the Jewish cemetery were broken, the Altschul synagogue burned, and the walls of the Alt-Neuschul synagogue streaked with the blood of Jewish martyrs (Pod. p. 84; see Abigdor Kara's elegy). Finally, in 1391 the charge of poisoning the wells was made, on which occasion Lipmann of Mühlhausen was among the sufferers (Kohut, ib. p. 318).
== Patnácté století ==