== Osmnácté století ==
The eighteenth century, which in its last quarter was to see the gates of the ghetto flung wide open, was marked by a blot upon the reign of Maria Theresa, which all the formal edicts of toleration could never remove. The confiscation of their books in 1715 had reminded the Jews of their utterly defenseless condition (M. pp. 41, 359). They may have hoped to recover grace by their conspicuous loyalty, shown first in 1741 on the occasion of the birth of Joseph II. and the empress' first visit to the church (Kohut, ib. p. 655) , and again particularly at the walls of Prague in 1742 and 1743, where with permission of their rabbi, Jonathan Eybeschütz, they stanchly fought against the French even on the Day of Atonement ("Jahrbuch," l.c. p. 151). Their loyalty was rewarded by an edict in 1745 which, without any reason, at one stroke banished them, 60 ,000 souls strong, from Bohemia, after their payment of a fine of 160 ,000 gulden. Representations by Venice, Holland, England, Hamburg, and other liberal powers were of no avail. Jonathan Eybeschütz wrote to the French congregations, and even to the pope (Kohut, ib. p. 658). Embittered to the extreme by the treachery of the nobles, the authorities desired to make an example of the Jews, especially as the opposition emperor, Charles VII. , had shown himself well disposed toward them, and as Frederick the Great was considered by the people as a "father of the Jews" (K. Bur. p. 3). That the authorities did not themselves believe in the accusation of treachery made against them is shown by the fact that it is nowhere alleged as the reason for the expulsion, and that later, in 1771, the Bohemians themselves defended the Jews from a similar accusation (Wolf, Th. p. 69); on the excommunication of Jewish traitors, issued in 1756 by Ezekiel Landau, see H., 1894, p. 416; Wolf, Th. p. 64. The sad results of this outrage affecting the whole country, the stagnation of all business, and the outspoken complaints of the people induced the authorities finally to readmit the Jews. From the edict of recall, it appears that before the expulsion the Jews had been permitted to live in Kaurzim, Tabor, Neuhaus, Pisek, Schuettenhofen, Wodnian, Pilsen, Miess, Klattau, Rokizan, and Laun. They were still to be excluded from the following cities where they had formerly lived: Czaslau, Budweis, Eger, and Leitmeritz ( "Jahrbuch, " l.c. p. 188; in memory of the bloody rule of the Croatians in 1745, to which R. Jonah , among others, fell a victim, a fast-day is still observed in Böhmisch Leipa, on Ṭebet 4; see Kohut, ib. p. 658). After this expulsion Maria Theresa treated the Jews on the whole more favorably than before (Wolf, Th. p. 60). But such laws as the Familianten Gesetz (Fr. Gr. p. 171), limiting the number of married persons in a community, the restrictions imposed upon Jewish trade (Wolf, Th. p. 77), rigorous insistence upon the wearing of the Jew badge ( yellow collar on the coat; abolished in 1781; "Zeit. für die Gesch. der Juden in Deutschland, " i. 27) , and the limitations imposed upon Jewish physicians (Wolf, Th. pp. 75-77; the first doctor was graduated in 1778) , still showed the same intolerance. All of these, however, were wiped away at one stroke by the edict of tolerance issued by Joseph II. in 1782. The Prague Jewishquarter was incorporated (1784); Jewish physicians were allowed to treat Christian patients in 1785 (Lieben, "Gal' Ed, " p. 18) , and Jews were drawn for military service (Kohut, ib. p. 757). The home conditions of the Prague Jews likewise improved. On the great fire of 1754 see K. Heine, p. 43; Pod. p. 92. David Oppenheimer , the book-collector, laid the foundation for Jewish bibliography. Jonathan Eybeschütz, a living exemplar of the destructive influence wrought by the Shabbethai Ẓebi imposition (Kohut, ib. p. 680), and Ezekiel Landau, his opponent, were the chief scholars of this period. Upon the other side, Peter Beer and Herz Homberg sought to introduce reforms in the Jewish ritual, but met with determined resistance, particularly as Joseph II. himself would have nothing to do with Mendelssohn and his "enlightenment. "
== Devatenácté století ==